About Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan information. Uzbekistan history. Uzbekistan today. Map of Uzbekistan. Emblem and Flag of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan today is a new independent state in Central Asia. After the collapse of the USSR Uzbekistan chose peace-loving democratic policy and launched reforms to develop a market economy and enter international economic society as a full member.
Uzbekistan at a glance

Formal name: The Republic of Uzbekistan
Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E
Area: total 447.400 km2: land: 425.400 km2, water: 22,000 km2
Land boundaries: total: 6.221 km, border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2.203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1.099 km, Tajikistan 1.161 km, Turkmenistan 1.621 km
Population: 32,1 million (January, 2017)
Density of population: 50.1 per km2
Capital: Tashkent
Language Official language – Uzbek, widely used: Russian, Tajik, Karakalpak, also English, which is getting popular among youth generation.
National currency: Sum. 1 sum=100 tiyin.
Structure: Sovereign Republic of Karakalpakistan, 12 provinces, 226 cities and districts.
Religion: Islam – 88%, Christian – 9% (more about Religions in Uzbekistan >>>)
Time: GMT + 05:00
Electric power: 220 V AC, 50 amp; Standard two-pin plug socket
International dialing code: +998
Flag of Uzbekistan

The national flag was approved by the Extraordinary 8th Session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Uzbekistan on November 18, 1991.

The flag of the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of blue, white and green stripes, separated by two narrow red stripes. A crescent and three rows of twelve stars are situated on the left side of the upper blue stripe.

The blue color symbolizes the sky and water as the principle sources of life. The National flag of Amir Timur was also blue in color. The white stripe is the traditional symbol of peace and of moral and spiritual purity. The green stripe symbolizes nature, the new epoch and abundance in the countries where the majority of the population is Islamic. Besides that, this is in harmony with the modern movement of Greenpeace, which protects nature. The red separating stripes symbolize the current of vital energy in any living body and also connect our pure and noble thoughts with the sky and the earth. The crescent of the new moon, along with its traditional historical symbolism, is at the same time a symbol of the birth of republic’s independence. The symbolism of twelve stars is connected historically with the solar calendar year, which begins from Navruz and embodies the twelve principles laying in the foundation of state management.
Emblem of Uzbekistan

The state emblem of the Republic of Uzbekistan was approved by the 10th Session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Uzbekistan on July 2, 1992. The state emblem of the Republic of Uzbekistan actually absorbed the centuries-old experiences of the Uzbek people. It reflects a blossoming valley and a shining sun. The right side of the valley is set off with wheat and to the left with a cotton plant garland. The octagonal star, symbolizing the unity of the Republic, crowns the state emblem. The holy Muslim symbols of the crescent and the star are placed inside the star. In the center of the emblem there is the holy bird, Khumo, with its spread wings symbolizing magnanimity, nobility and service. These symbols reflect the long way of the Uzbek people towards peace, stability, happiness, wealth and prosperity. A little frame with the inscription “Uzbekistan” is placed in the lower part of the state emblem.
The National Anthem

The state anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan was approved by the 11th Session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Uzbekistan at the 12th convocation on December 10, 1992.

The lyrics are by Abdulla Aripov and the music by Mutal Bourkhanov.

Original text Translation

Serquyosh hur o’lkam, elga baxt, najot,
Sen o’zing do’stlarga yo’ldosh, mehribon!
Yashnagay to abad ilmu fan, ijod,
Shuhrating porlasin toki bor jaxon!

Oltin bu vodiylar – jon O’zbekiston,
Ajdodlar mardona ruhi senga yor!
Ulug’ xalq qudrati jo’sh urgan zamon,
Olamni mahliyo aylagan diyor!

Bag’ri keng o’zbekning o’chmas iymoni,
Erkin, yosh avlodlar senga zo’r qanot!
Istiqlol mash’ali, tinchlik posboni,
Haqsevar, ona yurt, mangu bo’l obod!

Oltin bu vodiylar – jon O’zbekiston,
Ajdodlar mardona ruhi senga yor!
Ulug’ xalq qudrati jo’sh urgan zamon,
Olamni mahliyo aylagan diyor!

My country, sunny and free, salvation to your people,
You are a warmhearted companion to the friends
Flourish eternally with knowledge and inventions,
May your fame shine as long as the world exist!

These golden valleys-dear Uzbekistan,
Manly spirit of ancestors in companion to you!
When the great power of people became exuberant
You are the country that amazes the world!

Belief of generous Uzbek does not die out,
Free, young children are a strong wing for you!
The torch of independence, guardian of peace,
Just motherland be eternally prosperous!

These golden valleys-dear Uzbekistan,
Manly spirit of ancestors in companion to you!
When the great power of people became exuberant
You are the country that amazes the world!
General Information

The Republic of Uzbekistan is situated in the central part of Central Asia between two rivers: the Amudarya and Syrdarya. The Turan Lowland lies to the northwest, and the Tien-Shan and Pamir-Alay mountain ridges are located in the southeast of the territory. The Kyzyl-Kum Desert defines the Northern part of the country. Uzbekistan borders Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan.

Mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat, intensely irrigated river valleys along the course of the Amu Darya, Sirdaryo (Syr Darya), and Zarafshon rivers; the Fergana Valley in the east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; the shrinking Aral Sea in the west.

Elevation extremes
Lowest point: Sariqarnish Lake – 12 m.
Highest point: Adelunga Mountain – 4.301 m.

The climate of Uzbekistan is extremely continental with a great number of sunny days. The average monthly temperature in January ranges from -100C to +30C. Summer is hot and dry. The average monthly temperature in July varies from +350C to +450C. Autumn is relatively warm and is the season when delicious fruits and vegetables are in abundance in the numerous bazaars (markets). The average annual temperature is 130C.
Nature of Uzbekistan >>>

Tourist seasons
Because of the peculiarity of climate, first half of tourist season falls on spring months: March, April, May, and the second half is in August, September and October. Also there is tourist activity in winter months for the lovers of mountains and winter ports (ski, snowboard).

Public holidays
January 1 – New Year
March 8 – International Women’s Day
March 21 – Navruz (Central Asian New Year)
May 9 – Memorial/Remembrance Day
September 1 – Independence Day
October 1 – Teacher’s Day
December 8 – Constitution Day.

There are other religious holidays with varying dates:
Ramadan Khait
Kurban Khait

There are over one thousand dishes in Uzbek cuisine. Fruits and vegetables grown under the tender oriental sun are taste fantastic. There are about 100 varieties of Uzbek plov, prepared in a different way in every region. The caloric content and ecological cleanliness of local ingredients is unique. Uzbek cuisine can not be described, it has to be tasted. Add information
Uzbek currency
History of national currency, pictures of banknotes and actual exchange rate in Uzbekistan

Currency rates
1 USD – sum
1 EUR – sum
1 RUB – sum
Uzbek sum is official national currency of Uzbekistan. Letter designation of Uzbek sum is UZS and digital is 860. One Uzbek sum is one hundred tiyin.

The monetary unit with the name “sum” has been enacted in Uzbekistan in 1992. At that time sums were coupons, and it was planned that these payment means will be temporal in the country. In a year it has been decided to enact the Uzbek currency with the same name – sum. So the Uzbek currency had the following rate that time: 1 unit was equal to one thousand old sum-coupons. In 1994 Uzbek sum became official national currency of Uzbekistan. It has been decided to name sum-coupons as “old sum”, and the Uzbek currency which has come instead was called “new sum”.
Uzbek sum is a national currency of Uzbekistan; it is not a free convertible currency. The national currency of Uzbekistan cannot be taken before arrival in the country.

In Uzbekistan circle of 4 kinds of banknotes available in denominations from 100 to 1000 sum, and coins in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 500 sum.

All over the country you can easily find exchange offices. Frequently, such offices are located in hotels and at the airports. Besides it, money can be exchanged at almost all branches of banks. The most widespread currency which is accepted by banks and exchange points are US dollars, euro, Japanese yen, the Russian roubles.
Exhange offices in Tashkent >>>

Guests of Uzbekistan should remember that Uzbek sum is the only currency which can be used as payment means in Uzbekistan. Payment for the goods and services in other currencies is illegal and imply criminal responsibility.

Uzbekistan. Tashkent.

Uzbekistan. Tashkent

Tashkent sights, Uzbekistan
Well balanced combination of modern metropolis and the unique flavor of eastern city await you in Tashkent – the capital of Uzbekistan and the largest metropolis in Central Asia.

For 60 years Tashkent was the capital of a communist republic, which significantly helped the city in its socio-economic development. But the Bolsheviks were not very kind to the religious architectural monuments of feudalism and capitalism, trying to set their own monumental buildings of the Soviet era. Tourists note that the farther the city is from the former communist center of the country the more its architectural monuments are preserved: for example in Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand. Add to abovementioned the fact that after the earthquake in 1966 the city has changed dramatically after the overhaul, and you’ll see why in Tashkent only a limited number of buildings which belong to the Middle Ages remained.

Thus it becomes more valuable when we see preserved blue domes of mosques and madrassas of the Old Town – the area which is associated with the ancient, medieval and colonial past of Tashkent. This part of town is full of traditional neighborhoods of artisans, skilled craftsmen in wood and metal, and also excellent bakers, pastry-cooks and chefs of inimitable Uzbek cuisine.

Here you can find the real oriental bazaar – “Chorsu” – the oldest, most famous and biggest market in Tashkent. Here you can buy everything that accompanies a person with his first cry in the world and until his last breath. The bazaar is teeming the life, mixed-language speech is heard, counters are full of a variety of goods – there are national knives Pichak and skullcaps of any cut and color, and the traditional national clothes. The atmosphere of the market itself is saturated with aromas of spices, fresh fruits, vegetables and oriental sweets.

Near to the Chorsu Bazaar, a short walk away there is the religious center of Tashkent – Hast-Imam Complex which preserves the famous manuscript of the Quran attributed to Caliph ‘Uthman (7th Century) and there are madrassas and mosques with typical oriental turquoise domes, which walls are decorated with colorful mosaic patterns. The complex has been constructed over the centuries, starting from 976, when there a mausoleum of the first holly patron of Tashkent Kaffal-Shashi was built up. Another sightseeing of Tashkent is Khoja Ahrar Vali Mosque, which is close to the “Chorsu” market. This functioning mosque is the oldest of the 157 mosques of modern Tashkent and the third largest mosque in Uzbekistan after the Bibi Khanum in Samarkand and the Kalyan Complex in Bukhara.

Taking a walk around Tashkent you will see the elegant European buildings from the time of Turkestan governor-generalship. Buildings in Tashkent of the late XIX – early XX centuries are characterized by “brick style” of Russian neo-romantic architecture, when the skilful brickwork itself is a decor. You will see the glittering facades of modern buildings and take the metro in Tashkent – one of the most beautiful in the world, where most of subways are artfully decorated underground palaces. There is a lot to see in the center of Tashkent, where there are numerous cafes and restaurants, theaters and museums, clubs and cinemas, shopping malls. The heart of the city is the Amir Timur Square which is surrounded by the buildings of the State Museum of Timurids, the Palace for International Forums, Tashkent State University of Law and the symbol of the city – Tashkent Clock Towers.

Landmarks and sights of Old Town

Hast-Imam (Khazrati Imam) is a religious center of Tashkent. It includes the Barak-Khana madrasah, built in the XVI century, the Tillya-Sheih Mosque, Mausoleum of Saint Abu-Bakr Kaffali Shashi and Islamic Institute named after al-Bukhari. More

Chorsu Bazaar is a popular Tashkent sight, aged more than several centuries, was always located at the city’s main square Eski-Juva. A good many of oriental rulers were trampling down the land of the bazaar for ages. More

The Khodja Akhrar Vali Mosque was built at th e shakhristan’s highest point of ancient Tashkent in 819. The mosque, re-built, renamed and restored over and over again in different epochs, rises in Old Town amidst the squares of Chorsu, Khadra ans Eski Juva. More

The Center of Tashkent – the places to visit

Amir Timur Square

It includes the Hotel Uzbekistan, Law Institute (former building of girls’ gymnasium), the Amir Timur Museum, the best-known Tashkent Chiming Clock and one of the most grandiose architectural structures in Tashkent – the Palace of Forums. More

Independence Square

Independence Square is found in the center of Tashkent city. It is a favorite resting place for Tashkent residents. This was greatly facilitated by the fact that it is the place where the city’s most beautiful fountains are located. More

Tashkent Television Tower

The Tashkent television tower is one of the another popular Tashkent sights. It is the highest structure in Central Asia. Its total height amounts to 375 meters. The construction of the TV Tower began in1979, and completed in 1981. More


All the Tashkent metro stations have their own inimitable architectural look: marble and granite lining, rows of columns, colorful bas-reliefs, ganch. The lighting plays a critical role in design, which, in one station, creates an atmosphere of festival ball-room, while in another one, makes feel as though you found yourself in mysterious catacombs. More

Recreation, entertainment and shopping in Tashkent

The well-known Tashkent shopping and entertainment complexes such as City Macon, Mega Planet, Korzinka and Continent supermarket chains will best suit for shopping and entertainment. In addition the city has centrally located Alay bazaar, where it is possible to buy everything from fresh fruits and vegetables to clothing, souvenirs and jewelries. Bowling, golf-club and paint-ball are also available in Tashkent.

Sights in the vicinity of Tashkent

Zangiata Mausoleum

At 15 km from Tashkent, in the village of Zangiata, there is a famous mausoleum Zangiata, where Muslim Sheikh Ai-Khodja and his wife were buried. More


Alay Bazaar
Amir Timur Square
Archaeological monuments
Barak-khan Madrasah
Catholic Church
Chapel near the Kamolon gates
Chorsu Bazaar
German Kirche
Independence Square
Islamic Institute
Juma Mosque
Kaffal-Shashi mausoleum
Kukeldash Madrasah
Mausoleum of Sheykh Zayniddin-bobo
Minor Mosque
Romanov Palace
Shastri Monument
Shayhantaur Ensemble
St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral
Tashkent Metro
The Old City
Tillya Sheikh Mosque
TV Tower
Yunus-khan Mausoleum

Anbar-bibi mausoleum
Charvak reservoir
Hodjikent petroglyphs
Karakiyasay petroglyphs
Zangiata mausoleum

Amir Timur Museum
Art Gallery NBU
Center of Applied Arts
Centre of National Arts
Exhibition Hall
International Caravanserai of Culture
Museum of Applied Art
Museum of Art
Museum of Geology
Museum of History of Uzbekistan
Museum of Railway Technics
Museum of Victims of Political Repression
Polytechnical Museum
Tamara Khanum Museum
Ural Tansykbaev Memorial Museum

Botanical Garden
Bowling Alleys
Coffee Houses
Restaurants and Cafes
Swimming Pools
Tashkent theatres
Tashkent Zoo

Tashkent Airport
Tashkent History
Tashkent Layover Guide
Tashkent Museums
Tashkent Photogallery
Tashkent Railway Station
Vegetarian food in Tashkent

Uzbekistan. Bukhara.

Bukhara, Uzbekistan

Bukhara – The Holy City

Bukhara is one of the most ancient cities of Uzbekistan, situated on a sacred hill, the place where sacrifices were made by fire-worshippers in springtime. This city was mentioned in a holy book “Avesto”. Bukhara city is supposed to be founded in the 13th cent. B.C. during the reign of Siyavushids who came to power 980 years before Alexander the Great. The name of Bukhara originates from the word “vihara” which means “monastery” in Sanskrit. The city was once a large commercial center on the Great Silk Road.

Bukhara lies west of Samarkand and was once a center of learning renowned throughout the Islamic world. It is the hometown of the great Sheikh Bakhouddin Nakshbandi. He was a central figure in the development of the mystical Sufi approach to philosophy, religion and Islam. In Bukhara there are more than 350 mosques and 100 religious colleges. Its fortunes waxed and waned through succeeding empires until it became one of the great Central Asian Khanates in the 17th century.

Bukhara with more than 140 architectural monuments is a “town museum” dating back to the Middle Ages. 2,300 years later, ensembles like Poi-Kalyan, Ismail Samani Mausoleum, Ark, Lyabi-Khauz are attracting a lot of attention. The city consists of narrow streets, green parks and gardens, historical and architectural monuments belong to the different epochs, but locate very close to each other.

Bukhara Pictures

Ark citadel
Ismail Samany Mausoleum
Nodir Devanbegi Khanaka
More pictures of Bukhara
Night pictures of Bukhara
Winter pictures of Bukhara

Bukhara Links

Bukhara Hotels – Review and reserve hotels in Bukhara
Malika Bukhara – Hotel of Malika Hotels Group
Lyabi-Khauz Hotel – Hotel in the historical center of Bukhara. Review info and book online


Abdullazizkhan Madrasah
Ark Fortress
Bolo-Khauz Complex
Chashma-Ayub Mausoleum
Chor-Minor Madrasah
Djami Mosque
Ensemble of Khoja-Gaukushon
Fayzabad Khanqah
Kalyan Minaret
Kalyan Mosque
Khanqah of Khoja Zaynuddin
Kukeldash Madrassah
Lyabi-Khauz Ensemble
Magoki-Attori Mosque
Mausoleum of Imam Abu Khafs Kabir
Medieval Baths of Bukhara
Miri-Arab Madrasah
Nadir Divan-begi Madrasah
Poi-Kalyan Ensemble
Registan Square
Samanids Mausoleum
Trading domes of Bukhara
Ulugbek Madrasah

Chor-Bakr Necropolis
Gijduvan Ceramics Museum
Jeyran Ecocenter
Mausoleum of Sayf ad-Din Boharzi
Memorial complex of Naqshbandi
Sitorai Mokhi-Khosa Palace

Bukhara State Museum
Fayzulla Khodjaev Museum

Folklore show
Restaurants and Cafes

Uzbekistan tourism

Uzbekistan . Samarkand.

Geographical coordinates: 39°39’00” N 66°57’00” E Former names: Marakanda, Smarakanda Elevation: 702 m Official language: Uzbek Population: 366,000 (2007) Nationals: Uzbek, Tajik, Russian, Iranian etc. “Everything I have heard about Marakanda is true. Except that it’s more beautiful than I ever imagined.” Alexander the Great, 329 BC Among the cities of the world, one of the most ancient is Samarkand, whose history dates back 2,500 years. In its time, the city was conquered by the warriors of Alexander the Great, the Army of the Arab Caliphate, and the Mongol hordes of Genghis-khan. Each time, after the bloody battles, devastation and fire, it was reborn, to become once again an important city, and at times the capital of a major Central Asian state. Originally Samarkand occupied part of Mount Afrasiab (Afrosiab), which rises to the north of modern Samarkand. The city grew, expanded its borders, and by the ninth century it occupied the entire hill. By the tenth century its numerous suburbs to the south of the hill were built up with bazaars, caravanserais, baths and mosques. This part of the city was well irrigated. In contrast, Afrasiab presented difficulties in water supply, and an intricate arrangement of lead water pipes along an aqueduct was required. When Samarkand was captured by the Mongols the ancient water supply system was destroyed, and life on Afrasiab ended. Today it is a lifeless hill concealing priceless treasures from the artistic culture of the past. The Mongol invasion destroyed the buildings of the previous period. It took a whole century to recover from the after-effects of the Mongol invasion. Plundered and demolished Samarkand was rebuilt on the site of one of its former suburbs. The restoration of the Shakhi-Zindah necropolis, a religious relic, the supposed grave of Kusam ibn-Abbas, was begun on Afrasiab. The building of the necropolis reached its height during the last quarter of the fourteenth century, at a time when the mausoleums for the members of the Timur family, his military leaders and his courtiers, were being built. Some of the structures of the Shakhi-Zindah ensemble date back to the second half of the fifteenth century, the Ulug Beg period. They are: the unreservedly decorated portals (1434 -1435) by the foot of Mount Afrasiab, and the mausoleum higher up the slope, with two elevated turquoise domes, presumably over the grave of the astronomer Kazy-zade-Rumi, Ulug Beg’s teacher. The narrow passage beyond the mausoleum is lined on either side with the mausoleums of the Timur period. They form a fantastic spectacle of majolica revetment and tile mosaics. The mausoleum of Shadi-Mulk-aka (1372) and her mother Tour-kan-aka, Timur’s sister, are better preserved than others. The facing of the portals is done with blocks of superbly carved glazed terracotta in combination with majolica. The passage between the mausoleums gives way to a charming shady courtyard enclosed by the mausoleum of Tournan-aka (early 15th century), and the mausoleums built before the time of Timur – those of Khoja Akhmad, and of an unknown person. A door with the date 1404-1405, which is decorated with carvings and originally had an ivory inlay, leads from a courtyard to a fifteenth century mosque and the earliest and principal mausoleum, that of Kusam ibn-Abbas. The colored enameled revetment of Shakhi-Zindah is unique. The stone masons who followed one another over a century were able to unite individual buildings into a single architectural ensemble with great artistic gracefulness. Towards the end of the fourteenth century, Samarkand became the capital of the huge Empire of Timur. The Bibi-khanum mosque was built in great haste in the years 1399-1404. The walls of the mosque are faced with polished brick, which serve as a backdrop for the blue enameled bricks used for a large geometrical decorative pattern. Such monumental ornamentation is characteristic of the buildings constructed for tures in Samarkand was the mausoleum of Gur-Emir (1403-1404), which served as the tomb for his sons, his grandson Ulug Beg, and for himself. The mausoleum was added to the existing complex of two buildings, that of the madrasah and khana-gah, forming as it did the third side of a courtyard. The fourth side was formed by entrance portals decorated with glazed tile mosaics. In the fifteenth century, during the time of Ulug Beg, structures were less grandiose but were distinguished by nobility of form and a great harmony of colored enameled revetment: the entry portals, the mausoleums of Kazy-zade-Rumi, the octagonal Shakhi-Zindah, and the madrasah in Reghistan, the large square in the busiest part of the city (1420). Ulug Beg’s observatory outside Samarkand was a unique structure. After Ulug Beg was murdered it was abandoned and by the sixteenth century it was in ruins. Alongside the monumental fifteenth century buildings, smaller architectural ensembles were erected. Such is the ensemble Khoja Abdi-Darun. When Bukhara once again became the capital in the sixteenth century, there was less construction in Samarkand, and many structures suffered neglect. In the seventeenth century the Madrasah Shir-Dor (1619-1636) was built, where once stood now the now nonexistent khana-gah of Ulug Beg. The building stands on the same axis as the Ulug Beg Madrasah and repeats its facade not only in size but also in its overall composition. The third side of Reghistan Square was occupied with Tillah-kari Madrasah (1646-1660). As Timur’s Bibi-khanum mosque was in ruins by that time, a Friday mosque was added to the complex of structures comprising the Tillah-kari Madrasah. After the seventeenth century, the situation in the country changed. Never did architecture in Samarkand reach such heights again. But the ancient city continued to exist, and now it is once more a thriving, developing city, one of the industrial and cultural centers of Uzbekistan. 720 – 721 Said Khusein conquered the town; conversion of Sogdians to Muslim faith. The 11thc. Samarkand lost the status of leader in culture and economy; prestige of the capital town was taken by Bukhara. The 1Oth-11thcc. continual uprisings against Bukhara rule; Muhammad Khorezm-shah came to power. 1212 uprising against Khorezm-shah. 1220 regiments of Genghis khan destroyed the city. The 14thc. Tamerlane’s troops freed Samarkand from the Mongols; Samarkand became the capital of the Temurids. The 14th-15thcc. the beginning of intense building of the city during the absolute rule of Tamerlane. The 15thc. the throne was handed over to Ulugbek, Tamerlan’s grandson. The 15th-16thcc. Sheibaniy-khan’s offence; Samarkand was conquered by nomadic Uzbeks. The end of the 16thcc. the beginning of the process of feudal territorial division caused by the economic decadence of Samarkand. 1740 – during Nodir Shah’s attack, all the residents were massacred; by the end of the 18thc. Murad-shah gradually had rebuilt the city. 1868 – Russian troops occupied “The Holy City” Samarkand. 1929 – 1930 Samarkand was the capital of the Uzbek Soviet Republic. Samarkand has always been famous as a cultural center and today is considered to be a city of craftsmen and scientists.

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